header banner

Lanarkshire Lifelines

Self-Injury Awareness Training



1.            Sinclair, J.M., K. Hawton, and A. Gray, Six year follow-up of a clinical sample of self-harm patients. J Affect Disord, 2010. 121(3): p. 247-52.

2.            Kapur, N., House, A., Creed, F., et al (1998) Management of deliberate self-poisoning in adults in four teaching hospitals: descriptive study. British Medical Journal, 316, 831 -832.

3.          Fox, C. and Hawton, K. (2004) Deliberate Self-harm in Adolescence. London: Jessica Kingsley

4            Hawton, K., D. Zahl, and R. Weatherall, Suicide following deliberate self-harm: long-term follow-up of patients who presented to a general hospital. Br J Psychiatry, 2003. 182: p. 537-42.

5.            Cooper, J., et al., Suicide after deliberate self-harm: a 4-year cohort study. Am J Psychiatry, 2005. 162(2): p. 297-303.

6.            Hawton, K., et al., Repetition of self-harm and suicide following self-harm in children and adolescents: findings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2012: p. no-no.

7.            Hawton, K., K. Rodham, and E. Evans, By their own young hand : deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideas in adolescents. 2006, London ; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley. 264 p.

8.            Klonsky, E.D., The functions of deliberate self-injury: a review of the evidence. Clin Psychol Rev, 2007. 27(2): p. 226-39.

9.            Young, R., et al., Young people who self-harm. Br J Psychiatry, 2007. 191: p. 44-9.

10.            Psychiatrists, R.C.o., Self-harm, suicide, and risk: helping people who self-harm: Final report of a working group., in Report CR158. 2010, Royal College of Psychiatrists: London.

11.            O’Connor, R.C., et al., Self-harm in adolescents: self-report survey in schools in Scotland. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2009. 194(1): p. 68-72.

12.          Hawton, K., K.E. Saunders, and R.C. O'Connor, Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. Lancet, 2012. 379(9834): p. 2373-82.

13.          Moran, P., et al., The natural history of self-harm from adolescence to young adulthood: a population-based cohort study. Lancet, 2012. 379(9812): p. 236-43.

14.          Walsh, B.W. and P. Rosen, Self-mutilation and contagion: an empirical test. Am J Psychiatry, 1985. 142(1): p. 119-20.

15.          Rosen, P.M. and B.W. Walsh, Patterns of contagion in self-mutilation epidemics. Am J Psychiatry, 1989. 146(5): p. 656-8.

16.          Plener, P. and J. Fegert, Non-suicidal self-injury: state of the art perspective of a proposed new syndrome for DSM V. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2012. 6(1): p. 9.

17.          Skegg, K., S. Nada-Raja, and T.E. Moffitt, Minor self-harm and psychiatric disorder: a population-based study. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 2004.34(2): p. 187-96.

18.          Nock, M.K., Why do People Hurt Themselves? New Insights Into the Nature and Functions of Self-Injury. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 2009. 18(2): p. 78-83.

19.          Nock, M.K., Self-injury. Annu Rev Clin Psychol, 2010. 6: p. 339-63.

The model shown for risk factors is not the only model available. Below are two other well known and often cited by Nock (16, 17) and Hawton et al (10).

NSSI diagram

A second is by Hawton, K., K.E. SAunders, and R.C. O'Conner, Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. Lancets, 2012. 379(9834): p. 2373-82.

Risk factors diagram

20.          Brown, M.Z., K.A. Comtois, and M.M. Linehan, Reasons for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in women with borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol, 2002. 111(1): p. 198-202.

21.          Harned, M.S., L.M. Najavits, and R.D. Weiss, Self-harm and suicidal behavior in women with comorbid PTSD and substance dependence. Am J Addict, 2006. 15(5): p. 392-5.

22.          Fischhoff, B., E. Nightingale, and J.G. Iannotta, eds. Adolescent Risk and VulnerabilityConcepts and Measurement. 2001, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council.: Washington, DC.

23.          Daniel, B., Concepts of Adversity, Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience: A Discussion in the Context of the ‘Child Protection System’. Social Policy and Society, 2010. 9(02): p. 231-241.

24.          Yates, T.M., A.J. Tracy, and S.S. Luthar, Nonsuicidal self-injury among "privileged" youths: longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to developmental process. J Consult Clin Psychol, 2008. 76(1): p. 52-62.

24.          Mackay, N. and C. Barrowclough, Accident and emergency staff's perceptions of deliberate self-harm: attributions, emotions and willingness to help. Br J Clin Psychol, 2005. 44(Pt 2): p. 255-67.

25.          Law, G.U., H. Rostill-Brookes, and D. Goodman, Public stigma in health and non-healthcare students: attributions, emotions and willingness to help with adolescent self-harm. Int J Nurs Stud, 2009. 46(1): p. 107-18.

 Supports and resources - worth reading there are other sites but these are vey useful.


Nice Self Harm guideline  http://www.nccmh.org.uk/downloads/SH/Self-harm%20post-publication%20corrections%20Jan2013.pdf 








self help:



PDF downloads

Factsheet About Self-Injury
Coping: Stress Management